Angle – angles are formed by two rays that begin at the same point
Arc – a section or portion of the circumference of the circle
Area – the space measured in square units that any 2 dimensional shape or polygon occupies
Axis – the vertical and horizontal lines that make up the quadrants of coordinate plane. The vertical axis is usually referred to as the y axis and the horizontal axis is usually referred to as the x axis.
Base – the bottom of a shape, solid or three dimensional object. The base is what the object ‘rests’ on.
Bell curve – the shape of the graph that indicates the normal distribution.
Circumference – the complete distance around a circle or a square.
Chord – the segment which joins two points on a circle.
Complementary angles – the two angles involved when the sum is 90°.
Cone – a three dimensional shape with only one vertex, having a circular base.
Conic section – the section formed by the intersection of a plane and a cone.
Coordinate – the ordered pair that states the location on a coordinate plane. Used to describe location and or position.
Congruent – objects and figures that have the same size and shape. The shapes can be turned into one another with a flip, rotation or turn.
Cylinder – a three dimensional shape with a parallel circle at each end and joined by a curved surface.
Decagon – a polygon/shape that has ten angles and ten straight lines.
Diagonal – a line segment that connects two (non-adjacent) vertices in a polygon.
Diameter – a chord that passes through the centre of a circle. Also the length of a line that cuts the shape in half.
Edge – a line that joins a polygon or the line (edge) where two faces meet
Ellipse – an ellipse looks like a slightly flattened circle. A plane curve. Orbits take the form of ellipses.
End point – the ‘point’ at which a line or a curve ends.
Equilateral – all sides are equal.
Flip – a reflection of a two dimensional shape, a mirror image of a shape.
Geometry – the study of lines, angles, shapes and their properties. Geometry is concerned with physical shapes and the dimensions of the objects.
Graphing calculator – a larger screen calculator that’s capable of showing/drawing graphs and functions.
Graph theory – a branch of mathematics focusing on the properties of a variety of graphs.
Hexagon – a six sided and six angled polygon. Hex means 6.
Histogram – a graph that uses bars where each bar equals a range of values.
Hyperbola – one type of conic section. The hyperbola is the set of all points in a plane. The difference of whose distance from two fixed points in the plane is the positive constant.
Hypotenuse – the longest side of a right angle triangle. Always the side that’s opposite of the right angle.
Isosceles – a polygon having two sides equal in length.
Line – a straight infinite path joining an infinite number of points. The path can be infinite in both directions.
Line segment – a straight path that has a beginning and an end points.
Line of symmetry – a line that divides a figure or shape into two parts. The two shapes must equal one another.
Obtuse angle – an angle having a measure greater than 90° and up to 180°.
Obtuse triangle – a triangle with at least one obtuse angle as described above.
Octagon – a polygon with 8 sides.
Parralellogram -a quadrilateral that has both sets of opposite sides that are parallel.
Parabola – a type of curve, any point of which is equally distant from a fixed point, called the focus, and a fixed straight line.
Pentagon – a five sided polygon. Regular pentagons have five equal sides and five equal angles.
Perimeter -the total distance around the outside of a polygon. The total distance around is obtained by adding together the units of measure from each side.
Perpendicular – when two lines or line segments intersect and form right angles.
Plane – when a set of points joined together form a flat surface, the plane can extend without end in all directions.
Polygon – line segments joined together to form a closed figure. Rectangles, squares, pentagons are all examples of polygons.
Quadrant – one quarter (qua) of the plane on the cartesian coordinate system. The plane is divided into 4 sections, each section is called a quadrant.
Radius – a line segment from the center of a circle to any point on the circle. Or the line from the center of a sphere to any point on the outside edge of the sphere. The radius is the distance from the center of a circle/sphere to the outside edge (arc/surface).
Ray – a straight line with one endpoint. The line extends infinitely.
Rectangle – a parallelogram which has four right angles.
Reflection – a mirror image of a shape or an object. Obtained from flipping the image/object.
Right angle – an angle that is 90°.
Right triangle – a triangle having one angle equal to 90°.
Rhombus -a parallelogram with four equal sides, sides are all the same length.
Slope -the slope shows the steepness or incline of a line, determined from two points on the line.
Scalene triangle – a triangle with 3 unequal sides.
Sector – an area between an arc and two radiuses of a circle
Supplementary angles – two angles are supplementary if their sum totals 180°.
Transversal – a line that crosses/intersects two or more lines.
Trapezoid – a quadrilateral with exactly two parallel sides.
Triangle – three sided polygon.
Venn diagram – a Venn diagram is often two circles (can be other shapes) that might be overlap or independent each other. The overlapping part usually contains information that is pertinent to the labels on both sides of the Venn diagram.
Volume – a unit of measure. The amount of cubic units that occupy a space. A measurement of capacity or volume.
Vertex-a point of intersection where two (or more) rays meet, often called the corner. Wherever sides or edges meet on polygons or shapes. The point of a cone, the corners of cubes or squares.
X-axis – the horizontal axis in a coordinate plane.
X-intercept – the value of X when the line or curve intersects or crosses the x axis.
Y-axis – the vertical axis in a coordinate plane.
Y-intercept – the value of y when the line or curve intersects or crosses the y axis.
Two straight lines AB and CD are called parallel straight lines, if they lie in the same plane and don’t intersect however long they may be continued. The designation: AB|| CD. All points of one line are equidistant from another line. All straight lines, parallel to one straight line are parallel between themselves. It’s adopted that an angle between parallel straight lines is equal to zero. An angle between two parallel rays is equal to zero, if their directions are the same, and 180 deg, if the directions are opposite. All perpendiculars to the one straight line are parallel between themselves. Inversely, the straight line, which is perpendicular to one of parallel straight lines, is perpendicular to all others. A length of perpendicular segment, concluded between two parallel straight lines, is a distance between them.
1. It is a square. The length of each side is 5 cm. The name of this square is ABCD. Could you determine the length of diagonal AC?
2. It is a circle in which P is a centre point. AC is a diameter. AP is equal to PC and we call them radius. The measure of angle APB is 60°. Could you determine the measure of angle CPB?
3. It is a right triangle. The length of its hypothenuse is 5 cm and one of its edge is 4 cm long. Calculate the area of the triangle!